The Mars Express lander has shown part of the largest source of dust on Mars. This wind-shaped structure is known as the Medusa Fossae Formation or MFF.
Medusae Fossae Formation is not only a real “dust factory” on Mars. This place is also known as the largest sedimentary deposit on the planet. It extends for 5,000 km, and the formation area can be compared to India.
The dusty region was named after the mythical monster Gorgon Medusa, who could turn those who looked into her eyes into stone. The word “fossae” in Latin translates as trenches or depressions.
The formation is located along the border between the southern highlands of Mars and the northern lowlands (known as the Martian dichotomy). It is located between the two most famous volcanic regions of the planet (Tarshish and Elysium). It also includes the Eumenides Dorsum mountain range, whose edges can be seen on the gently sloping rise that emerges from the lower right edge of the frame (northeast). This change in altitude is particularly well seen on the attached topographic map of this area of the Martian surface.
Mars Express also discovered several other landscapes on Mars that have been significantly shaped by wind, such as the Nili Fossae Formation, Terra Arabia, the Great Sirte Plateau, the southern dunes, and the Schiaparelli crater.