A group of scientists with the support of the Department of Energy are developing software tools for modeling all the main processes in the Universe as part of the ExaSky project.

Also, such tools are partially ready and awaiting the deployment of new exascale-class supercomputers such as the Aurora and Frontier for Argonne National Laboratory. Completion of the project will reveal the secrets of the origin and development of the Universe, as well as predict the future.

The ExaSky project is overseen by scientists at Argonne National Laboratory. It is believed that this is one of the most important applications in the field of earth and space science, which will be solved with the launch of exascale supercomputers. An important aspect of the new platforms will be the emphasis on GPU computing. Therefore, the ExaSky project code is actively adapting to work on Intel, NVIDIA and AMD GPUs.

Understanding the accelerated expansion of the universe is one of the scientific questions that the ExaSky team seeks to explore.

Observations of the universe confirm that it is expanding, and the speed of its process increases with time. Its main cause has not been clarified, scientists suggest that hypothetical dark energy is responsible for it.

Cosmic acceleration and other similar discoveries were made possible by several advances in the field of observation combined with improved theory and simulations. The current model of cosmology, which includes dark energy and dark matter (a form of matter that gravitationally interacts normally, but has very weak interactions, if any, with atomic matter), gives a very good description of astronomical and cosmological observations. Small discrepancies do exist. Scientists are unsure if these discrepancies point to new physics or are the result of measurement artifacts. As you know, cosmological measurements are often complex and difficult to obtain and measure.

The new exascale-class supercomputers will enable more sophisticated physics to be enabled given a wide range of inputs such as massive neutrinos, star and galaxy formation models, and multiple sources of astrophysical feedback such as active galactic nuclei, galactic winds and supernova explosions. These events will be included in both codes and will work on larger, higher resolution meshes.