Gravitational waves can help answer the question of why there is more matter than antimatter left after the Big Bang.
A group of theoretical researchers suggested that Q-balls, a collection of bosonic matter, which has a lower energy state than its individual particles, will help to investigate this issue. If you can study them, you can find out why after the Big Bang there is more matter left than antimatter.
The ratio of matter to antimatter is important, as this balance supports the existence of our universe. At some point in the first second of the universe’s existence, it turned out that more matter was produced than antimatter. But the asymmetry is so small that every time ten billion particles of antimatter were produced, only one particle of matter appeared.
Despite the fact that this asymmetry is very small, modern physical theories cannot explain it. Standard theories say that matter and antimatter must have been produced in exactly equal amounts.
Researchers now share the popular idea that this asymmetry arose just after inflation, a period in the early universe when there was a very rapid expansion. This means that the clot of the field could expand so as to evolve, fragment and create this asymmetry. Previously, it was difficult to test this theory.
The authors of the new work proposed a new way to clarify whether this was really so – they came up with the use of field clots, such as Q-balls. These are bosons similar to the Higgs boson.
The Higgs particle exists when the Higgs field is excited. But the field itself has its own unusual properties, for example, nono can form a lump. If you have a field very similar to the Higgs field, then it has some kind of charge, the same as the charge of one particle. Since the charge cannot simply disappear, the field must become either a particle or a lump. A pile of such lumps coagulating together forms a Q-ball.
The authors note that Q-balls remain stable, the same could happen as the universe expanded. Until, in the end, most of the energy in the universe ends up in these clumps. At the same time, small fluctuations in radiation density begin to grow when these particles become the majority.
When Q-balls disintegrate, it happens very suddenly and quickly, as a result of which the plasma oscillates become strong sound waves. Further, this effect is transmitted to space and time, in other words, gravitational waves are formed, which can be detected over the next several decades.
The researchers also found that the conditions for creating these ripples are very common, and the resulting gravitational waves must be large enough and low in frequency to be detected by conventional gravitational wave detectors.
If this is how the asymmetry was created, then almost certainly we will soon find a signal from the beginning of time, confirming this theory about why we and the rest of the world of matter exist at all.